Publications Published in Health and Climate Change
Public health benefi ts of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of short-lived greenhouse pollutants. Kirk R Smith, Michael Jerrett, H Ross Anderson, Richard T Burnett, Vicki Stone, Richard Derwent, Richard W Atkinson, Aaron Cohen, Seth B Shonkoff , Daniel Krewski, C Arden Pope III, Michael J Thun, George Thurston.
Health and Climate Change:
In this report we review the health eff ects of three short-lived greenhouse pollutants—black carbon, ozone, and sulphates. We undertook new meta-analyses of existing time-series studies and an analysis of a cohort of 352 000 people in 66 US cities during 18 years of follow-up. This cohort study provides estimates of mortality eff ects from long-term exposure to elemental carbon, an indicator of black carbon mass, and evidence that ozone exerts an independent risk of mortality. Associations among these pollutants make drawing conclusions about their individual health eff ects diffi cult at present, but sulphate seems to have the most robust eff ects in multiple-pollutant models. Generally, the toxicology of the pure compounds and their epidemiology diverge because atmospheric black carbon, ozone, andsulphate are associated and could interact with related toxic species. Although sulphate is a cooling agent, black carbon and ozone could together exert nearly half as much global warming as carbon dioxide. The complexity of these health and climate eff ects needs to be recognised in mitigation policies.