Publications Published in Journal of Air and Waste Management
Nanoparticle and Ultrafine Particle Events at the Fresno Supersite. Watson, John G.; Chow, Judith C.; Park, Kihong; Lowenthal, Douglas H.
Journal of Air and Waste Management:
Continuous measurements of particle size distributions of 3–407 nm were collected from August 2002 to July 2004 at the Fresno Supersite to understand their number concentrations, size distributions, and formation processes. Measurements for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass, sulfate (SO4 2), nitrate (NO3), black carbon (BC), particle- bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and meteorological data (wind speed, wind direction, temperature [T], relative humidity [RH], and solar radiation) were used to determine the causes of nanoparticle (3–10 nm) and ultrafine (10–100 nm) particle events. These events were found to be divided into four types: (1) 3- to 10-nm morning nucleation; (2) 10- to 30-nm morning traffic; (3) 10- to 30-nm afternoon photochemical; and (4) 50- to 84-nm evening home heating, including residential wood combustion. Intense examples of the first type (104 number [#]/cm3) were observed on 29 days, nearly always during the summer. The second type of event was observed on more than 73 days and occurred throughout the year. The third type was observed on 36 days, from spring through summer. The fourth type was found on 109 days, all of them during the winter. Although sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in Central California are low, the small residual amounts in gasoline and diesel fuel are apparently sufficient to initiate nucleation events. These were measured in the morning, soon after the shallow surface inversion coupled with layers aloft where nucleation probably was initiated. PM2.5 concentrations were poorly correlated with nanoparticle number.