Assessing local climate action plans for public health co-benefits in environmental justice communities. Michael Anthony Mendeza.
Taylor & Francis Online Local Environment: The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability :
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13549839.2015.1038227 DOI: 10.1080/13549839.2015.1038227
Climate change presents a complex environmental health and justice challenge for the field of urban planning. To date, the majority of research focuses on measuring local climate efforts and evaluating the general efficacy of adopted climate action plans (CAPs). Cumulatively, these studies argue that socio-economic and demographic variables (such as the fiscal health of cities, city size, and median household income) are important factors in implementing climate policies. Less studied are issues of environmental justice and the impacts of climate change on population health. Through interviews with urban planners and a document analysis of CAPs, this study assesses how California cities with high levels of pollution and social vulnerability address climate change and public health. The findings of this study show that CAPs in these cities rarely analyse whether greenhouse gas reduction strategies will also yield health co-benefits, such as a reduction in the co-pollutants of climate change (i.e. ozone, particulate matter, and nitrogen oxides). In many instances, the net co-benefits of health are not monetised, quantified, or even identified by local governments. In California's most impacted cities, climate planning activities and work on public health are happening in a parallel manner rather than through an integrated approach. The results suggest a need for increased opportunities for interagency coordination and staff training to conduct health analyses, free and easily accessible tools, methods for prioritising funding streams, and the development of partnerships with community-based organisations for linking climate planning with public health.
Climate Adaptation Planning in the Monterey Bay Region: An Iterative Spatial Framework for Engagement at the Local Level. Sarah M. Reiter, Lisa M. Wedding, Eric Hartge, Letise LaFeir, Margaret R. Caldwell.
Scientific Research Publishing Natural Resources:
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/nr.2015.65035 DOI: 10.4236/nr.2015.65035
Climate change and non-stationary flood risk . L. E. Condon, S. Gangopadhyay, and T. Pruitt.
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences:
<p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: x-small;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: x-small;">
<p>Future flood frequency for the upper Truckee</p>
<p>River basin (UTRB) is assessed using non-stationary extreme</p>
<p>value models and design-life risk methodology. Historical</p>
<p>floods are simulated at two UTRB gauge locations, Farad and</p>
<p>Reno, using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model</p>
<p>and non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) models.</p>
<p>The non-stationary GEV models are fit to the cool season</p>
<p>(November–April) monthly maximum flows using historical</p>
<p>monthly precipitation totals and average temperature. Future</p>
<p>cool season flood distributions are subsequently calculated</p>
<p>using downscaled projections of precipitation and temperature</p>
<p>from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase</p>
<p>5 (CMIP-5) archive. The resulting exceedance probabilities</p>
<p>are combined to calculate the probability of a flood of a given</p>
<p>magnitude occurring over a specific time period (referred to</p>
<p>as flood risk) using recent developments in design-life risk</p>
<p>methodologies. This paper provides the first end-to-end analysis</p>
<p>using non-stationary GEV methods coupled with contemporary</p>
<p>downscaled climate projections to demonstrate</p>
<p>the evolution of a flood risk profile over typical design life</p>
<p>periods of existing infrastructure that are vulnerable to flooding</p>
<p>(e.g., dams, levees, bridges and sewers). Results show</p>
<p>that flood risk increases significantly over the analysis period</p>
<p>(from 1950 through 2099). This highlights the potential to</p>
<p>underestimate flood risk using traditional methodologies that</p>
<p>do not account for time-varying risk. Although model parameters</p>
<p>for the non-stationary method are sensitive to small</p>
<p>changes in input parameters, analysis shows that the changes</p>
<p>in risk over time are robust. Overall, flood risk at both locations</p>
<p>(Farad and Reno) is projected to increase 10–20%</p>
<p>between the historical period 1950 to 1999 and the future period</p>
<p>2000 to 2050 and 30–50% between the same historical</p>
<p>period and a future period of 2050 to 2099.</p>
Estimated Loss of Snowpack Storage in the Eastern Sierra Nevada with Climate Warming. Bales, R., Rice, R., and Roy, S..
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management:
The character and causes of flash flood occurrence changes in mountainous small basins of Southern California under projected climatic change . Theresa M. Modrick, Konstantine P. Georgakakos.
Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies:
Twentieth-century shifts in forest structure in California: Denser forests, smaller trees, and increased dominance of oaks . Patrick J. McIntyre, James H. Thorne, Christopher R. Dolanc, Alan L. Flint, Lorraine E. Flint, Maggi Kelly, and David D. Ackerly.
Biological Sciences - Ecology: