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Browse publications gathered by the California Energy Commission that focus on climate change issues relevant to the State of California. Find both PIER research papers as well as relevant articles published in peer reviewed journals.

Publications Published in 2014

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  1. 2014 Smart Grid System Report . .
    United States Department of Energy : 2014

  2. 21st 1 Century Precipitation Changes over the Los Angeles Region . Berg, N., A. Hall, F. Sun, S. Capps, D. Walton, B. Langenbrunner, and J. Neelin.
    Journal of Climate: 2014
    DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00316.1

  3. A Bird in Our Hand: Weighing Uncertainty about the Past against Uncertainty about the Future in Channel Islands National Park. Scott A. Morrison.
    The George Wright Forum: 2014

  4. Adaptation of Agricultural and Food Systems to a Changing Climate and Increasing Urbanization. Pitesky, Maurice. Gunasekara, Amrith. Cook, Carolyn. Mitloehner, Frank.
    Springer International Publishing 1: 2014
    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40518-014-0006-5
    DOI: 10.1007/s40518-014-0006-5
    Notes
    <div class="abstract-content formatted"> <p class="a">Climate change will pose risks for the world&rsquo;s food supply in the coming decades; this comes at a time when the global demand for food is expected to soar based on 2050 world population estimates. It is important to recognize that climate change will necessitate temporal and geographical shifts in food production, but will most likely not result in the collapse of our food systems. However, because of differences in the severity of how climate change will affect agriculture, regional and temporal changes in production and harvest-time will challenge the existing and sometimes outdated agricultural infrastructure with respect to collection, storage, transportation, and distribution of food. Increasing regional and global urbanization will further perturb these systems. Adaptation to climate change with respect to crop and food animal production will have to occur at multiple temporal, seasonal, and geospatial levels. Other major adaptation measures will have to occur with respect to crop selection, genetics, CO<sub class="a">2</sub> and temperature sensitivity, and resilience of crops and food animals, water resources, and mitigation of invasive species. Technology, including sophisticated Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based modeling, coupled with publically available soil and weather data that help farmers optimize production and conservation will be essential toward adaptation. Communication of this type of localized technical information to agricultural stakeholders by national, federal, and state entities is beginning to occur in order to help farmers adapt and prepare for extreme events associated with climate change. As the largest agricultural state in the USA, California has developed a robust mitigation and adaptation strategy that may be useful for other nation-states.</p> </div>


  5. Aerosol emissions from prescribed fires in the United States: A synthesis of laboratory and aircraft measurements. . A. May, G. R. McMeeking, T. Lee, J. W. Taylor, J. S. Craven, I. Burling, A. P. Sullivan, S. Akagi, J. L. Collett Jr., M. Flynn, H. Coe, S. P. Urbanski, J. H. Seinfeld, R. J. Yokelson, and S. M. Kreidenweis.
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres: 2014
    DOI: 10.1002/2014JD021848

  6. American Climate Prospectus . Robert Kopp, DJ Rasmussen, Michael Mastrandrea.
    : 2014

  7. Beyond a warming fingerprint: individualistic biogeographic responses to heterogeneous climate change in California. GIOVANNI RAPACCIUOLO, SEAN P. MAHER, ADAM C. SCHNEIDER, TALISIN T . HAMMOND, MEREDITH D. JABI S, RACHEL E. WALSH, KELLY J . IKNAYAN, GENEVIEVE K. WALDEN, MEAGAN F. OLDFATHER, DAVID D. ACKERLY and, STEVEN R. BEISSINGER.
    Berkeley Initiative in Global Change Biology, University of California Berkeley Global Change Biology: 2014
    DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12638
    Notes
    <p><span style="font-family: AdvPSPAL-R; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: AdvPSPAL-R; font-size: xx-small;"> <p>Understanding recent biogeographic responses to climate change is fundamental for improving our predictions of</p> <p>likely future responses and guiding conservation planning at both local and global scales. Studies of observed biogeographic</p> <p>responses to 20th century climate change have principally examined effects related to ubiquitous increases in</p> <span style="font-family: AdvPSPAL-R; font-size: xx-small;"> <p>temperature</p> </span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: AdvTT3713a231+20; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: AdvTT3713a231+20; font-size: xx-small;">&ndash; </span></span><span style="font-family: AdvPSPAL-R; font-size: xx-small;"></span> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="font-family: AdvTT3713a231+20; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: AdvTT3713a231+20; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: AdvTT3713a231+20; font-size: xx-small;"> <p>&ndash;</p> </span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: AdvPSPAL-R; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: AdvPSPAL-R; font-size: xx-small;">particularly precipitation and water availability </span></span><span style="font-family: AdvTT3713a231+20; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: AdvTT3713a231+20; font-size: xx-small;">&ndash; </span></span><span style="font-family: AdvPSPAL-R; font-size: xx-small;"></span> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="font-family: Advpala-ita; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: Advpala-ita; font-size: xx-small;">a priori </span></span><span style="font-family: AdvPSPAL-R; font-size: xx-small;"></span> <p>&nbsp;</p> </p> <p><span style="font-family: AdvPSPAL-R; font-size: xx-small;">knowledge of </span> <p>&nbsp;</p> </p> <p>relevant natural history for the taxa and regions under study.</p> </p> <p><span style="font-family: AdvPSPAL-R; font-size: xx-small;">is widely acknowledged from a theoretical standpoint and </span> <p>&nbsp;</p> </p> <p>supported by paleontological evidence, we lack a practical understanding of how these changes interact with temperature</p> <p>to drive biogeographic responses. Further complicating matters, differences in life history and ecological attributes</p> <p>may lead species to respond differently to the same changes in climate. Here, we examine whether recent</p> <p>biogeographic patterns across California are consistent with a warming fingerprint. We describe how various components</p> <p>of climate have changed regionally in California during the 20th century and review empirical evidence of biogeographic</p> <p>responses to these changes, particularly elevational range shifts. Many responses to climate change do</p> <p>not appear to be consistent with a warming fingerprint, with downslope shifts in elevation being as common as upslope</p> <p>shifts across a number of taxa and many demographic and community responses being inconsistent with upslope</p> <p>shifts. We identify a number of potential direct and indirect mechanisms for these responses, including the</p> <p>influence of aspects of climate change other than temperature (e.g., the shifting seasonal balance of energy and water</p> <p>availability), differences in each taxon&rsquo;s sensitivity to climate change, trophic interactions, and land-use change.</p> <p>Finally, we highlight the need to move beyond a warming fingerprint in studies of biogeographic responses by</p> <p><span style="font-family: AdvPSPAL-R; font-size: xx-small;"> <p>considering a more multifaceted view of climate, emphasizing local-scale effects, and including</p> </span></p> </p> <p><span style="font-family: AdvPSPAL-R; font-size: xx-small;">collectively termed a warming fingerprint. Although the importance of changes in other aspects of climate</span></p>


  8. Biochar does not mitigate field-scale N2O emissions in a NorthernCalifornia vineyard: An assessment across two years . Elizabeth Verhoevena, Johan Six.
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment : 2014
    Notes
    <p><span style="font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-size: xx-small;"> <p>&nbsp;</p> </span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-size: xx-small;"><font size="1"> <p>&nbsp;</p> </font><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">Biochar </span></span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">amendment to soil has been proposed as a mechanism to mitigate climate change through anarray of mechanisms; one being the mitigation of soil nitrous oxide (N</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">2</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">O) emissions. Yet the extent andmechanisms through which this may be achieved in temperate agroecosystems is uncertain. We used apine chip biochar produced at a moderate temperature (550</span></span><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;">◦</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">C, PC biochar) and a walnut shell biocharproduced at a higher temperature (900</span></span><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;">◦</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">C, WS biochar). Biochar was applied at 10 Mg ha</span></span><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;">&minus;</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">1</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">to a workingcommercial wine grape system in North-Central California. The effects of biochar were assessed overtwo years at two distinct functional locations: the berm and row, which differed in N application andirrigation. N</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">2</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">O emissions and ancillary soil properties (NH</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">4+</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">, NO</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">3</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">, water filled pore space (WFPS), and pH)were closely monitored following management and precipitation events. Soil bulk density, cover cropyield and soil C and N were measured annually to address longer term changes in cropping system andsoil properties. In the PC biochar treatment, annual cumulative N</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">2</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">O emissions were significantly higherthan the control treatment each year (</span></span><span style="font-family: LICKC G+ Gulliver IT,Gulliver IT; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICKC G+ Gulliver IT,Gulliver IT; font-size: xx-small;">p </span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">&lt; 0.05); 4.14 </span></span><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;">&plusmn; </span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">1.14 kg N</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">2</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">O-N ha</span></span><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;">&minus;</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">1</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">yr</span></span><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;">&minus;</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">1</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">versus 2.00 </span></span><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;">&plusmn; </span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">0.66 kg N</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">2</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">O-N ha</span></span><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;">&minus;</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">1</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">yr</span></span><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;">&minus;</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">1</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">in year one, and 4.24 </span></span><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;">&plusmn; </span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">0.74 kg N</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">2</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">O-N ha</span></span><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;">&minus;</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">1</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">yr</span></span><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;">&minus;</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">1</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">versus 1.60 </span></span><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;">&plusmn; </span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">0.28 kg N</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">2</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">O-N ha</span></span><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;">&minus;</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">1</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">yr</span></span><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;">&minus;</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">1</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">in yeartwo. Emissions of N</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">2</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">O in the WS biochar treatment were also higher than the control each year, butdifferences were not significant. The effect of biochar on N</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">2</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">O emissions was more pronounced in therow location where annual emissions were significantly higher than the control in one and both years forthe WS and PC biochars, respectively (</span></span><span style="font-family: LICKC G+ Gulliver IT,Gulliver IT; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICKC G+ Gulliver IT,Gulliver IT; font-size: xx-small;">p </span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">&lt; 0.05). In the PC biochar treatment, we observed increased N</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">2</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">Oemissions at both functional locations, however increases were more pronounced in the row locationwhere they were in part attributable to increased cover crop N inputs. Differences between treatmentsin NH</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">4+</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">, NO</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">3</span></span><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICKB G+ MTSY,MTSY; font-size: xx-small;">&minus;</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">and WFPS were mostly not significant. The WS biochar significantly raised soil pH relativeto the control (</span></span><span style="font-family: LICKC G+ Gulliver IT,Gulliver IT; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICKC G+ Gulliver IT,Gulliver IT; font-size: xx-small;">p </span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">&lt; 0.05), however in the berm location only, and increased soil pH in this treatment did notcorrespond to changes in N</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">2</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">O emissions. Since neither biochar amendment reduced N</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">2</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">O emissions, ourresults demonstrate the need to evaluate N</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">2</span></span><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: LICJF G+ Gulliver RM,Gulliver RM; font-size: xx-small;">O emissions at a cropping system scale (e.g. encompassingchanges in N inputs and cycling) and in systems where nitrification processes may dominate emissions.</span></span></span></span></span></p>


  9. California Forest and Rangeland Greenhouse Gas Inventory Development. .
    STATE OF CALIFORNIA AIR RESOURCES BOARD : 2014

  10. California Getting Wetter to the North, Drier to the South:. Dan Killam, Ann Bui, Steve LaDochy, Pedro Ramirez, Joshua Willis.
    Climate: 2014
    DOI: doi:10.3390/cli2030168

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